What is Depression / Major Depressive Disorder?
Published: 25 August 2019
Published: 25 August 2019
And, with 1 in 7 Australians expected to experience depression at least once in their lifetime, it is practically guaranteed that someone in your care is suffering (Beyond Blue Ltd 2019b).
The good news? The rate of support-seeking appears to be on the rise, with around half of those living with depression actively getting treated.
Unfortunately, particularly in older populations, stigmas remain around seeking help for mental illnesses. Rates of depression in people living in residential care are around 30 per cent higher than the rest of the population (Beyond Blue Ltd 2019b).
Looking after a resident or client’s mental health is directly outlined by Standard 3 of the Aged Care Quality Standards: Personal Care and Clinical Care. This article will help you recognise if someone in your care is displaying signs of depression and to know what you can do to support them.
It’s human nature to feel down in the dumps, on occasion. Depression, however, is a diagnosable medical condition that presents in feelings of intense sadness, negativity and low-mood, lasting for a long period of time (MensLine Australia n.d.).
A characteristic of depression is that the route of the sadness is not always easy to pinpoint. Tough times can trigger a bout, but sometimes there is no obvious reason why a person may be depressed (ReachOut Australia 2019b).
Depression is often accompanied by a range of other physical and psychological symptoms, often affecting everyday living (SANE Australia n.d.). If low mood has become so intense that it is affecting your relationships, your work, or you are neglecting activities you once found to be simple or enjoyable, this could be a sign of depression, and help should be sought.
The term ‘depression’ is generally used to refer to ‘major depression’, however, there are several types of conditions which can be classified under the ‘depression’ term.
Major depression, clinical depression or major depressive disorder (ReachOut Australia 2019a) is the most common form of depression and what most people mean when they think ‘depression’. The characteristics of major depression include a low-mood that is felt most days of the week, and that lasts for at least two weeks (ReachOut Australia 2019a).
Melancholia is a term for a very severe depression, which presents with more physical symptoms. Major characteristics of melancholia include moving slower than normal and suffering from a complete loss of pleasure in almost everything (Beyond Blue Ltd 2019c).
Dysthymia, also known as persistent depressive disorder, refers to a generally less-severe form of major depression, however with longer-lasting symptoms (Beyond Blue Ltd 2019c; ReachOut Australia 2019a).
Psychotic depression is severe and is characteristically accompanied by a loss of touch with reality and episodes of psychosis, hallucinations and/or delusions (ReachOut Australia 2019a).
Perinatal depression refers to depression experienced from conception, during (antenatal depression) and after pregnancy and childbirth (postnatal depression). Perinatal depression is more than a passing ‘baby-blues’, and can affect both mothers and fathers (Centre of Perinatal Excellence 2019).
Often overlooked as a simple case of the ‘winter blues’, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), is a mood disorder that presents in a seasonal pattern. Most commonly felt in the cooler months, SAD can also occur through Spring and Summer, too (Gilkes, M 2018; Beyond Blue Ltd 2019c).
It is important to note the overlap that often exists between depression, delirium and dementia. High rates of delirium and depression are reported in people with dementia, and conversely, dementia and depression are further risk factors for developing delirium (health.vic 2018). It is recommended you familiarise yourself with the differences between the three conditions, as misdiagnosis is common, particularly in older patients and clients.
There are a number of possible causes of depression, however, it is difficult to narrow these down to one:
(Harvard Medical School 2019; Jesulola et al. 2018; SANE Australia n.d.)
Though depression can be developed by anybody at any stage of life, there are some populations who are at a greater risk than others, including:
(Beyond Blue Ltd 2019b)
Signs and symptoms of depression can vary from person to person and will range from mild to very severe. One or many of the following may be felt by someone experiencing depression:
(ReachOut Australia 2019b; Beyond Blue Ltd 2019a; SANE Australia n.d.)
If any of the above symptoms are severe and last for two weeks or more, and begin to affect other aspects of a person’s life, professional help should be sought (Black Dog Institute n.d.).
A diagnosis of depression is generally made in accordance with the recognised criteria described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM 5. Clinicians will ask a series of screening questions to determine a score from mild to severe to help guide a course for treatment (Healthdirect Australia 2017).
It is important to remember that depression is treatable, just like any other illness.
A treatment plan should be person-centred and developed in collaboration with the patient, so to best tailor options to suit their personal circumstances (ReachOut Australia 2019b).
Treatment options are many, however, most will commonly include:
(Black Dog Institute 2018; The Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc. 2012)
Timely interventions are key. Each person may respond differently to treatments and finding the right treatment may take time, therefore It is important that the patient is supported through this process (ReachOut Australia 2019b).
If you suspect someone in your care is suffering from depression and has been displaying any of the signs and symptoms listed above, they should be referred to a GP, mental health nurse, psychologist or psychiatrist.
If you or a person in your care expresses they are feeling suicidal, seek immediate help.
24-hour support services and counselling are available, including:
Ausmed’s Editorial team is committed to providing high-quality and thoroughly researched content to our readers, free of any commercial bias or conflict of interest. All articles are developed in consultation with healthcare professionals and peer reviewed where necessary, undergoing a yearly review to ensure all healthcare information is kept up to date.