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Meal Service in Aged Care

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Published: 02 September 2019

Cover image for article: Meal Service in Aged Care

Attentive meal service combined with healthy and flavoursome food can be a high-point in the day of aged care residents.

Dining in aged care is a topic worthy of consideration–malnutrition is an ongoing health issue among aged care residents, with studies showing that malnutrition affects at least one in two residents in Australian residential aged care facilities (Hugo 2017).

It would be unwise to underestimate the effect food presentation and service has on appetite and an individual’s eagerness to participate in mealtime.

This article will provide tips for providing high-quality meal service in aged care facilities. See previous Ausmed articles on food handling and meal assistance.

Meal service relates to Standard 4 of the Aged Care Quality Standards: Services and Supports for Daily Living.

facility staff member pulling tray of food
Healthy and flavoursome food can be a high-point in the day of aged care residents.

Before Service

  • Before the meal is served, it is important to ensure everything is correctly set up and accessible for the resident. Tables should have appropriate table cloths or mats, cloth napkins and/or clothing protectors (Bartl 2015).
  • Sufficient staffing is integral to being able to offer satisfactory meal service. It is difficult to anticipate how many residents will need help and it is impossible to predict mealtime complications that could require immediate attention.
  • To facilitate this, it may be worth holding two sittings for the midday meal. For example, your facility could implement separate sittings, the first sitting for residents requiring full assistance and the second sitting for residents requiring minimal assistance and spread staff between settings with a scheduled break in the middle (Bartl 2015).

Atmosphere

Ensure that the dining environment is welcoming, open and facilitates socialisation, for example, have the dining room well-lit and pleasantly decorated.

It is important that tables and chairs are arranged in a way that permits residents to move around freely, including residents who use a wheelchair or other mobility aid (Bartl 2015).

Consider holding a ‘special service’ on occasion, for example, employing a chef to come to the facility to cook onsite. This means that at least once a month the atmosphere, the type of meal and the meal service is novel for the residents. Other ideas could include themed days or barbecues (Bartl 2015).

Mealtime should be relaxed and never rushed. This is particularly important in the case of residents who may eat slowly but wish to remain independent. It is important to notice when an independent resident becomes tired, or needs assistance or support to finish their meal (Cater Care 2018; Bartl 2015).

man eats meal with chopsticks in aged care facility
Ensure that the dining environment is welcoming, open and facilitates socialisation.

Attention to Detail

It’s crucial to serve food in a way that looks appealing and satisfying, and to arrange food with the same level of detail that you would serve your own meals.

It only takes a few small thoughtful additions to drastically improve the appearance of a meal. For example, adding herbs such as a sprig of parsley or basil will add colour to a dish. Offering condiment options is relatively easy to incorporate into meal service and may offer residents a sense of agency (Unilever Food Solutions 2019).

Presenting food in an appealing way can prove challenging when catering for residents who experience difficulty eating solid foods and require pureed or modified foods. Texture modified foods can look unsightly, so it is important to pay extra attention to these meals and to come up with creative ways of presenting them.

While pureed food is a solution to choking hazards and caters to people with chewing and swallowing difficulties, it may be so unrecognisable from its original source that residents might refuse to eat it. A solution to this is to reshape the pureed food with a food mould, for example, a carrot shaped mould for orange puree (Egan 2019).

There’s no need to go overboard, but consider serving meals on colourful crockery and utensils. This will:

  1. Instantly liven up the meal; and
  2. Will assist residents who are living with visual/cognitive impairments.

(Unilever Food Solutions 2019)

(Note: monochromatic cutlery and crockery is known to be confusing for people living with dementia.)

Cultural Considerations

Avoid a one-size-fits-all approach to food service.

Take the time to find out what the residents prefer. Beyond catering to their dietary restrictions or preferences, familiarise yourself with cultural needs in regards to food preparation, for example if a resident requires their meal to be kosher or halal certified. 

Sharing food and coming together during mealtime bears great importance in certain cultures. Visiting family and friends should be encouraged to bring and share food, but they will need to be briefed on food safety guidelines (Cater Care 2018; Bartl 2015).

woman eats with friends in aged care facility
Avoid a one-size-fits-all approach to food service.

After Service

There’s a good chance residents will have feedback for the way meals are served and how mealtime is carried out. It’s important to take this onboard and make sure that this feedback is relayed to those in charge of meal planning and preparation.

Take into consideration residents who may be reluctant to share their feedback openly and consider anonymous surveys or questionnaires (Cater Care 2018)

Malnutrition

Malnutrition is rife in Australian aged care facilities. Recent media reports have shone light on the poor state of food leaving little doubt as to why residents might be reluctant to eat regular meals.

Malnutrition presents a major risk factor for sarcopenia and related issues such as increased risk of falls, arthritis, depression, fractures, pressure injuries, poor quality of life and hospitalisation (Rossi 2017; ProPortion Foods 2018).

Access to adequate food and nutrition in a form that is enjoyable is a fundamental right that should be observed for all residents in aged care facilities (ProPortion Foods 2018).

It is well understood that meal appearance, smell, flavour and a relaxed eating environment all contribute towards appetite stimulation. Consider for example, the difference careful food presentation could make for a resident in the process of adjusting to a diet only pureed food.

Conclusion

Care is crucial to meal service, your manner of service could greatly influence a resident’s enjoyment of mealtime and directly result in them receiving the nutrition they require to be healthy and happy.

Additional Resources

Multiple Choice Questions

Q1. True or false: One in three aged care residents suffer from malnutrition.

  1. True
  2. False

Q2. Which of the following is NOT listed as detail-focused method to meal service?

  1. Adding herbs to a meal.
  2. Using colourful cutlery and crockery.
  3. Using moulds for pureed food.
  4. Playing music at mealtime.

Q3. True or false: Cultural considerations are crucial to meal service in aged care facilities.

  1. True
  2. False
References

(Answers: b, d, a)

Author

Portrait of Ausmed Editorial Team
Ausmed Editorial Team

Ausmed’s Editorial team is committed to providing high-quality and thoroughly researched content to our readers, free of any commercial bias or conflict of interest. All articles are developed in consultation with healthcare professionals and peer reviewed where necessary, undergoing a yearly review to ensure all healthcare information is kept up to date. See Educator Profile

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Learner Reviews

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1 Total Rating(s)

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Audrey Sherwen
11 Sep 2019

Whilst informative, little new information was gleaned from a Palliative Care perspective

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Jan burdekin
03 Sep 2019

It’s a few tjings that I honestly never really thought of, in relation to if meals are not inviting then you just don’t eat. I eat all the time and don’t care what it looks like, however after 80 yrs perhaps it’s the smaller things that help you find joy in your day